biojet-fuel

Context:

The IAF’s An-32 aircraft used a 10% blend of Indian biojet fuel taken off from Leh’s Kushok Bakula Rimpochee airport on January 31. This was the first time that this mix was used in both engines of an aircraft.

About biofuel

  • Any hydrocarbon fuel that is produced from organic matter (living or once living material) in a short period of time (days, weeks, or even months) is considered a biofuel. 
  • Biofuels may be solid, liquid or gaseous in nature.
    • The natural biofuels or raw feedstocks mainly include oil crops, lignocellulosic biomass, solid wastes, and algae.
    • If these feedstocks are treated by certain technologies such as physical technologies the resultant biofuels can be in the form of solid (e.g., solid biomass, biochar), liquid (e.g., bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio oil), or gas (e.g., biogas, biohydrogen, and biosyngas).

 

Bioethanol 

Biodiesel 

Biojet fuel 

Generation:Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in plants as sugar or starch.

 

Used in:most cars

Generation:A biodiesel is a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based fuel consisting of long chains & containing alkyl (methyl or ethyl or propyl) esters

 

Used in:large trucks and tractors.

Generation:It is made from vegetable oils, sugars, animal fats and even waste biomass, and can be used in existing aviation jet engines without modification.

Jatropha oil is  suitable for conversion to jet fuel. 

 

Used in:Planes


 

Kinds of biofuels

National Policy on Biofuels – 2018 categorises biofuels as 

  1. "Basic Biofuels" or First Generation (1G) bio ethanol & biodiesel & "Advanced Biofuels" 
  2. Second Generation (2G) ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to drop-in fuels, 
  3. Third Generation (3G) biofuels, bio-CNG etc. 
 

Source:Sciencedirect.com

National Biofuel Policy 2018:

Image source: PIB