Context: The 2018 report on “vital statistics of India based on the Civil Registration System was released recently.
The sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a specified time period.
- Historically, all over the world it has been found that there are slightly more females than males in most countries.
- This is despite the fact that slightly more male babies are born than female ones; nature seems to produce roughly 943 to 952 female babies for every 1000 males.
- If despite this fact the sex ratio is somewhat in favour of females, this seems to be due to two reasons.
- First, girl babies appear to have an advantage over boy babies in terms of resistance to disease in infancy.
- At the other end of the life cycle, women tend to outlive men in most societies, so that there are more older women than men.
Key findings of the report
- Sex ratio at birth:
- Arunachal Pradesh recorded 1,084 females born per thousand males, followed by Nagaland (965) Mizoram (964), Kerala (963) and Karnataka (957).
- The worst was reported in Manipur (757), Lakshadweep (839) and Daman & Diu (877), Punjab (896) and Gujarat (896).
- Delhi recorded a sex ratio of 929, Haryana 914 and Jammu and Kashmir 952.
- The number of registered births
- The number of registered births increased to 2.33 crore in 2018 from 2.21 crore registered births the previous year.
- The level of registration of births has increased to 89.3% in 2018 from 81.3% in 2009.
- The prescribed time limit for registration of birth
- The prescribed time limit for registration of birth or death is 21 days. Some States, however, register the births and deaths even after a year.
- The birth or death certificate is issued free of charge by the Registrar concerned if reported within 21 days.
- If reported within 21-30 days, it can be registered on payment of the prescribed fee.
- If the duration is more than 30 days but within a year, it can be registered with the written permission of the prescribed authority and on the production of an affidavit made before a notary public or any other officer authorised by the State government and on payment of a fee.
- The report says that“Births and deaths reported after one year of occurrence shall be registered only on an order of the Magistrate of the First Class after verification.
Image Source: TH