Context: The 2018 report on “vital statistics of India based on the Civil Registration System was released recently.

The sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a specified time period. 

  • Historically, all over the world it has been found that there are slightly more females than males in most countries. 
  • This is despite the fact that slightly more male babies are born than female ones; nature seems to produce roughly 943 to 952 female babies for every 1000 males. 
  • If despite this fact the sex ratio is somewhat in favour of females, this seems to be due to two reasons.
    • First, girl babies appear to have an advantage over boy babies in terms of resistance to disease in infancy. 
    • At the other end of the life cycle, women tend to outlive men in most societies, so that there are more older women than men.

Key findings of the report

  • Sex ratio at birth:
    • Arunachal Pradesh recorded 1,084 females born per thousand males, followed by Nagaland (965) Mizoram (964), Kerala (963) and Karnataka (957). 
    • The worst was reported in Manipur (757), Lakshadweep (839) and Daman & Diu (877), Punjab (896) and Gujarat (896).
    • Delhi recorded a sex ratio of 929, Haryana 914 and Jammu and Kashmir 952.
  • The number of registered births
    • The number of registered births increased to 2.33 crore in 2018 from 2.21 crore registered births the previous year. 
    • The level of registration of births has increased to 89.3% in 2018 from 81.3% in 2009.
  • The prescribed time limit for registration of birth
    • The prescribed time limit for registration of birth or death is 21 days. Some States, however, register the births and deaths even after a year.
      • The birth or death certificate is issued free of charge by the Registrar concerned if reported within 21 days. 
    • If reported within 21-30 days, it can be registered on payment of the prescribed fee. 
    • If the duration is more than 30 days but within a year, it can be registered with the written permission of the prescribed authority and on the production of an affidavit made before a notary public or any other officer authorised by the State government and on payment of a fee.
    • The report says that“Births and deaths reported after one year of occurrence shall be registered only on an order of the Magistrate of the First Class after verification.

Image Source: TH