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Q1.Bifurcation of Jammu and Kashmir has led to nine union territories in the country. In this context enumerate the differences between UT and states and also state reasons for the creation of UT’s in India.  SYNOPSIS                                         Intro The Centre revoked Jammu and Kashmir's special status and brought in the J&K Reorganisation Bill 2019 which splits the state into two separate Union Territories - Jammu and Kashmir, which will have a legislature, and Ladakh, without a legislature. There are 29 states and seven Union Territories in India currently. However, after this bifurcation, there will be 28 states and nine Union Territories in the country Body Part Differences between UT and states Elected government: A state has its own elected government but a Union Territory is an administrative unit controlled and regulated by the Union Government. Constitution head: The constitution head of the state is the governor but the President acts as the executive head for the UT. Chief Ministers administer the states but an Administrator, appointed by the President administers the Union Territory. Legislative Assembly: A state also has its own Legislative Assembly and can form its own laws. However, there is a provision that allows the setting up of a Legislative Assemble in a Union Territory as is the case with Delhi and Puducherry. The rest of the Union Territories -- Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Lakshadweep - are without legislatures. Kashmir will be a UT with legislature like Delhi, while Ladakh will be a UT without legislature. Federal Relations: States also have a federal mode of relationship with the Union Government, unlike the Union Territories. The powers in a state are distributed between the state and the union, while in a Union Territory, all powers are vested in the hands of the Union. Area: States are also usually significantly larger than Union Territories when it comes to the area. But, this does not apply to Kashmir and Ladakh which are considerably bigger than some of the smaller states in India. Reasons for the creation of UT's in India Conclusion The Parliament has the power to redraw the political map of India. Over the years, the UTs are formed keeping in mind the strategic, geographical and other factors. The direct control of the Centre will help the socio-politico and economic developments of the UTs. Q2.Amazon rainforest is a universal treasure. Elucidate SYNOPSIS                                       Intro Tropical forests cover only twelve percent of the land-area of the Earth, yet they are home to between 50 and 90 percent of the world's species. Rainforests are the forests characterized with tall trees, relatively warm climates and a great degree of rain on an annual basis. Most rainforests have an annual rainfall in the ranges of 250 to 450 centimeters (98 to 177 inches). In ecological explanation, rainforests are defined as “multi-storied closed, broad leaved forest vegetation with a continuous tree canopy of variable height and with characteristic diversity of species and life forms”. Importance of the Amazon Rainforest Importance of the Amazon Rainforest Importance of the Amazon Rainforest - source of medicines   Tourism, Provide Home for the Indigenous People and other dimensions can be added Way Forward Globally, there is tremendous momentum to save the Amazon forests. Brazil must welcome initiatives such as the billion-dollar Amazon Fund backed by Norway and Germany, which has been operating for over a decade to promote sustainability of rainforests. Q3.Besides the directive contained in part IV, there are certain other directives addressed to the state in other parts of the constitution. What are they? SYNOPSIS                                      Intro Directive + principle + state + policy suggest that these are the principles that direct the state when it makes policies for its people. These DPSPs act as a guideline for the state and are needed to be taken into consideration while coming up with any new law but a citizen cannot compel the state to follow DPSPs. Our Constitution makers borrowed this concept from Irish Constitution, it has its genesis in Spanish Constitution. Body Part Part IV of the constitution deal with the provisions of the Directive Principles (Articles 36 to 51) & are broadly classified into
  • Socialist principles
  • Gandhian principles
  • Liberal intellectual principles.
Apart from this there are other directives mentioned in the constitution. They are Article 350 A: It shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups; and the President may issue such directions to any State as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Article 351 It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages. Article 335: The claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State. Conclusion Article 37 itself describes these principles as fundamental in the governance of the country. The objective of the DPSPs is to better the social and economic conditions of society so people can live a good life. Citizens can use DPSPs as a measure of the performance of the government Q4.How far the inter-state river water disputes (amendment) bill, 2019 will help in adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-state rivers and river valleys. Analyse SYNOPSIS                                                                        Intro As per the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission, the Centre introduced Inter-State-River Water Dispute (Amendment) Bill, 2019 which proposed to make it mandatory for centre to constitute a Tribunal on request or suo moto if it recognized a dispute. Body Part Disputes Resolution Committee to resolve the dispute amicably:
  • Under the amended Bill, when a state puts in a request regarding any water dispute, the central government will set up a Disputes Resolution Committee (DRC).
Inter-State River Water Disputes Tribunal:
  • If a dispute cannot be settled by the DRC, the central government will refer it to the Inter-State River Water Disputes Tribunal.
  • The central government will set up an Inter-State River Water Disputes Tribunal, for the adjudication of water disputes.
  • This Tribunal can have multiple benches. All existing Tribunals will be dissolved, and the water disputes pending adjudication before such existing Tribunals will be transferred to the new Tribunal
Objective Time frames specified:
  • Under the previous Act, the Tribunal must give its decision within three years, which may be extended by two years.  Under the Bill, the proposed Tribunal must give its decision on the dispute within two years, which may be extended by another year.
Data bank:
  • Under the previous Act, the central government maintains a data bank and information system at the national level for each river basin.
  • The recent Bill provides that the central government will appoint or authorize an agency to maintain such data bank.
Decision of the Tribunal:
  • Under the Act, the decision of the Tribunal must be published by the central government in the official gazette.  This decision has the same force as that of an order of the Supreme Court.  The Bill removes the requirement of such publication.  It adds that the decision of the Bench of the Tribunal will be final and binding on the parties involved in the dispute.
  • The amendment bill tries to assure that the decision will bind the parties with the same force as an order of the Supreme Court
Conclusion This bill seeks to address the demerits of earlier legal mechanism and offers a useful alternative to solve the interstate river water dispute among states. Also the bill affects the sovereignty of states by increasing the powers of the centre and making the states totally dependent on centre Q5.Though the federal principle is dominant in our constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian constitution leans in favour of a strong centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism.  SYNOPSIS                                      Intro K.C. Where, described the federal principle as “the method of dividing powers so that the general and regional governments are each within a sphere coordinate and independent. Body Part        
Unitary Features Federal features
Strong centre Written constitution
Absence of separate constitution of states Concept of constitutional supremacy
Right of parliament to amend major portions of constitution Complex procedure of amendment of constitution in certain matters
Unequal representation in Rajya Sabha   Clear division of powers via 7th schedule
States not given guarantee of territorial integrity Provision of Rajya Sabha
Single constitution  
Single citizenship  
Flexibility of constitution  
Integrated judiciary Independent judiciary
Appointment of state governor by the centre  
All India services and emergency provisions  
Single election machinery for state/centre government  
Conclusion The motto of “Unity in diversity” has always been very important to India and a federal government helps to establish a country with mutual tolerance and existence. However, for a country like India which is divided on the linguistic and communal basis, a pure federal structure would lead to disruption and division of states. With too much power given to a state, it will want to shift away from the union and establish its own government Hence our constitutional makers have envisioned a constitution that is neither wholly federal nor unitary; it is quasi-federal with more of a federal leaning than a unitary one. Q6.Are GI tags helping India’s exports? Discuss  SYNOPSIS                                         Intro A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on goods that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due solely to the place of origin e.g. its specific climate, soil or method of production. Such goods enjoy an advantage over competing goods solely because of their Geographical origin, which thus becomes a kind of IP and is protected. Some products worldwide with GI tag include Champagne, Feta cheese, tequila, Ceylon tea, Antigua (Guatemalan) coffee, and Kalamata olive. Body Part GI tagging has boosted the exports for some products like Darjeeling tea: For example: During the agitation for a separate state (Gorkhaland) was on in Darjeeling district and adjoining areas, exports of Darjeeling tea to many parts of the world fell drastically which increased its prices. GI can be a valuable tool for export differentiation. As much as 85% of French wine exports use GIs on their labels, as do 80% of all spirits exported from EU.
  • In exporting, GI can be valuable by setting the bar ‘or becoming the standard reference for that product in its distribution chain.
But there are certain inherent issues present that inhibits GI products from fully utilising its export value.
  • Problems of acute funds shortage amongst many registered GIs.
  • Absence of civil and criminal remedies in case of GI infringements.
  • Lack of a vigilant market watch and regular inspections.
  • Improper coordination between actors involved in the value chain of exports of GI products.
  • Lack of awareness about GI tag is a major problem
Way Forward The government must first encourage awareness amongst those producing these goods. Also mere granting of GI status will not help to realise a products true market value. It need to be adequately supported by government, since most of the people engaged in the production of such products are small households or small unit.   Read More: