1. Examine the utility of cryptocurrencies. What are the challenges associated with them?

Demand of the question

Examine how cryptocurrencies have become important in contemporary times, the benefits they potentially can provide, and the challenges put forward by them.

Keywords to be used

Blockchain, bitcoin, cryptography, decentralized ledger, peer-reviewed, transaction cost, internet mining, hawala, terror financing, black money, dark web, etc.

Introduction Introduce the answer with the court verdict on lifting the ban on cryptocurrencies in the country.


  • What are cryptocurrencies and how do they function?
  • Benefits ushered by them.
  • Challenges presented by them.
  • Solutions for the challenges.
  • Way forward.

Conclusion Mention the need for early adoption of cryptocurrencies as a legal tender in India.

  1. Indian institutes struggle to climb the international rankings. Identify reasons and suggest solutions for the same.

Demand of the question

Examine the causes for the poor performance of the Indian institutions in international rankings, and then suggest ways to improve the ranking of these. Try to include as many dimensions as possible.

Keywords to be used

NIRF, QS ranking, top 200 only has 3 Indian institutes, funding, faculty, infrastructure, curriculum, lack of critical thinking, innovation, the patent system, autonomy. Institutes of eminence, etc.

Introduction Mention the current status of the performance of Indian institutions in global rankings.


  • Highlight the reasons for poor performance.
  • Why is it important to have institutions in the top 200?
  • Mention the steps taken to improve the situation.
  • What else can be done to improve it?

Conclusion Mention the need for high-quality education for overall improvement in the quality of life in India.

  1. What are the pressure groups? Identify their role in empowering democracy.

The demand of the question

Examine what are pressure groups and their importance in the modern democratic system. Briefly talk about the threats and conclude with a way forward.

Keywords to be used

Pressure groups, CSO, lobbying, democracy, grassroots empowerment, people’s participation, outside expertise, etc.

Introduction Define what pressure groups are to introduce the answer.


  • Mention the roles of the Pressure groups
    • Positives (more focus)
    • Negatives (briefly)
  • Impact on democracy
  • Issues they face
  • Solutions to those.

Conclusion Mention the need for having an active civil society and pressure groups for a vibrant democracy to conclude the answer.

  1. The worst kind of poverty is the poverty of vision. Examine the statement in light of poor local governance in the country.

The demand of the question

The question asks for the lack of vision in developing the local governance of the country. Highlight how this lack of vision hampers the growth of local government.

Keywords to be used

Local governance, lack of vision, lack of devolution of powers, empowered panchayats, 73rd and 74th amendment acts, GVK Rao committee, LM Singhvi committee, Balwant rai Mehta committee, etc.

Introduction Local governance in the country awaits empowerment majorly due to lack of vision.


  • Current status of local governance.
  • The model of local governance that we aspire for.
  • Benefits of having a clear vision.
  • Challenges in adopting such a vision.
  • The ideal approach to develop such a vision.

Conclusion Center-state participation, and local level inclusion is required for creating a vision document. You can conclude by emphasizing this fact.

  1. What are dedicated freight corridors, and the challenges that loom around their implementation? Examine the need for and impact on the economy.

The demand for the question

Talk about the DFCs, their need, the benefits expected to arise from them, challenges that hamper the implementation, and conclude with a way forward on the same.

Keywords to be used

DFCs, trade potential, exports, port connectivity, hinterlands, land acquisition, technology, funding, professionalism, external assistance, cooperation, mission mode, etc.

Introduction Give a brief introduction by highlighting features of the DFCs.


  • Features of the DFCs
  • Need for the DFCs
  • Benefits ushered by these.
  • Issues that arise in the implementation
  • Solutions for these issues.
  • What after the DFCs?

Conclusion Mention a way forward for improving logistics performance by improving the railways of the country.

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