1. Examine the asymmetrical federalism in India.

Introduction Various states in India have been granted differential status under the provisions of federalism.


  • Define the asymmetrical federalism in the country.
    • J&K, Sikkim, etc.
    • The special status of the states.
    • North-east states
    • Himalayan states.
    • Tribal areas
  • What are the various provisions for the same?
    • Economic
    • Political
    • Social
  • Benefits of asymmetry.
    • Diversity is accommodated.
    • Decentralization
    • Departure from the one size fits all approach.
  • Issues with it.
    • It can lead to separatism.
    • Can open a Pandora's box of such demands.
    • Regional disparity
  • Way forward.

Conclusion While creating a gap among the states, it will also ensure that the country

  1. There needs to be a balance between the fundamental rights and the directive principles of state policy. Elucidate.

Introduction Fundamental rights are essentially human rights, and DPSPs are the guidelines for the state to grant further rights to the country.


  • Fundamental rights
    • Define
    • Highlight the importance
  • DPSP
    • Define
    • Highlight the importance
  • Give examples of conflicts between the two:
    • Article 19 vs Prohibition.
    • Equality vs upliftment of the backward classes.
    • Right to property vs Principles of Socialism.
  • Provide for the legal battles in the domain.
    • Champakam Dorairajan Case (1952),
    • Golak Nath Case (1967),
    • Kesavananda Bharati Case (1973),
    • Minerva Mill Case (1980) 
  • Conclude with a way forward.
    • Harmonious construction
    • Socialism as a central character.
    • Protection of fundamental rights.
    • Following Gandhi on Ends and Means.

Conclusion Fundamental rights and DPSPs have each got a unique place and the court has already drawn order of precedence for them all.

  1. Pollution levels are now becoming a major health burden. Comment.

Introduction Pollution levels in the country are at an all-time high leading to many issues, primary among which are health issues.


  • Current status of pollution
    • 7 out of the 10 most polluted cities in India.
    • Rise in almost all types of pollution.
  • Threats due to it
    • Health burden.
    • Climate change
    • Food insecurity
    • High mortality
    • Increased economic cost
  • Health concerns that arise are
    • Negative impact on the health of the country
    • Increased healthcare expenses.
    • Increase in prevalence of these diseases.
    • Special impact on the elderly.
  • Suggestions for the same are
    • Controlling pollution levels.
    • Reducing the cost of healthcare.
    • Introducing efficient technology to reduce consumption energy.
    • Controlling climate change.

Conclusion The health burden can either be linked with the GDP growth or with a demographic dividend in order to conclude the answer.

  1. Poverty elimination needs a lot of effort. Provide a strategy for the same.

Introduction The main demand of the question is to suggest a strategy for the alleviation of poverty in the country. Thus, introduce the current status of poverty that prevails.


  • Status of poverty in India.
  • Strategy for poverty alleviation shall involve:
    • Political effort
      • Departure from the populist policy
      • Involving the stakeholders in policymaking.
      • Bringing expertise in the formulation process
    • Economic effort.
      • Strengthening the poors.
      • Proportional support to various classes.
      • Incentives for entrepreneurship that creates formal jobs.
    • Inclusive development.
    • Social upliftment.
      • Bring all sections on a level playing field.
      • Social empowerment to be coupled with economic upliftment.
      • Promotion of affirmative policies.
      • Minorities and backward classes to be especially emphasized.
  • Way forward
    • Multidimensional poverty
    • Happiness.

Conclusion Conclude in a suggestive manner, highlighting the steps that can be taken to improve the current programs.

  1. Why should the eastern ghats be declared as UNESCO cultural heritage sites?

Introduction Eastern ghats are home to a rich cultural heritage in the country, and there has been recently an article in the Hindu on the issue.


  • Diversity of the Eastern Ghats.
    • Incorporates various elements of heritage:
      • ecological,
      • social, and
      • cultural heritage.
  • Why push for the UNESCO cultural heritage site tag.
    • Massive degradation since the 1970s.
    • The huge geographical expanse of the site
    • Vivid cultural and ecological heritage
    • The threat has multiplied in the context of climate change.
  • Arguments against the push.
    • A national mechanism is required,
    • The entire site has many aspects, and thus only cultural heritage tags are not enough.
  • What should be a way forward for the same?
    • Creating a national framework to protect the eastern ghats.
    • Ensuring people’s participation in doing so.
    • Imbibing the best practices from the UNESCO cultural heritage rule.

Conclusion Provide for a conclusion to this issue by supporting the demand of eastern ghats. It should only be conclusive in nature and no new arguments must be raised in the same.

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