1. Death row convicts must not be allowed to fiddle with the judiciary. Critically comment.

Introduction The recent case of Nirbhaya case convicts attempting to dodge the judicial system has brought to fore this major issue.


  • Attempts to fiddle with the judiciary
    • Multiple appeals.
    • False arguments.
    • Attempts to delay the procedures.
    • Non-compliance
  • Rights of the convicts
    • Right to appeal
    • Right to die with dignity
    • Right of exhausting the legal remedies available.
  • Mental trauma on the victim’s family.
    • Delayed justice.
    • Increased costs of justice.
    • Mental stress is associated with it.
  • Avoiding miscarriage of justice
    • Avoiding justice by vigilantism.
    • Capital punishments are irreversible.
  • Way forward.

Conclusion Highlight the need to expedite the process of capital punishment, and at the same time ensuring that legal remedies remain.

  1. Data localization has challenges as well as opportunities within. Comment.

Introduction Data localization has been a key demand recently.


  • Defining data localization
  • Examining the need for it
    • Privacy concerns
    • Snooping by foreign nations.
    • The government is unable to access the data in the hour of need.
    • Chances of losing data sovereignty.
  • Explaining the issues associated with it.
    • Increased costs for businesses.
    • Against ease of doing business.
    • Promotes protectionism.
    • Reduces investor's confidence.
    • Reciprocal legislation is possible.
  • Mention the opportunities.
    • Technical startups dealing with localization can flourish
    • Better access to the information of Indians.
    • Better implementation of the privacy norms.
    • Achieving data sovereignty.
  • Providing measures to eliminate the issues.
    • Step by step implementation
      • Data mirroring to data localization.
    • Creation of new infrastructure in the country.
    • Providing 1-3 years for implementation.

Conclusion It must be done in a step by step manner to reduce the negative impact to the largest possible extent.

  1. Biojet fuels can only complement traditional fossils. Critically comment.

Introduction Biofuels are becoming increasingly popular, finding utility in various sectors.


  • Define Biofuels.
  • Examine the issues with their adoption.
    • Low calorific value.
    • Less production.
    • No engines can use them standalone.
    • Blending can be done up to a limited extent.
  • Provide for the solutions to ensure their maximum usage.
    • Promoting production at local levels.
    • Increasing the research in fuel-efficient engines.
    • Switching from ethanol from the sugar factories.
  • Provide a futuristic outlook.
    • Ensuring that technology is widely accepted.
    • Better production of type-2, and 3 biofuels.
    • Mandating the blend in aviation fuel after adequate testing.

Conclusion They can not only complement but help in the reduction of the usage of traditional fuels. All we need is the appropriate products, and harnessing technology.

  1. Elucidate upon the need for protection of national heritage. Highlight the lacuna in the Indian model and suggest solutions.

Introduction The national heritage of India faces severe threats including vandalism, degeneration, stealth, etc.


  • Threats to the national heritage area
    • Stealing
    • Climate change
    • Low maintenance.
    • Less recognition.
    • Vandalism.
    • Degeneration.
  • Reasons for protecting these are
    • Sources of historical information.
    • Boost tourism.
    • Promote cultural integration.
  • Issues in preserving them are
    • Lack of technology
    • Lack of trained workforce.
    • The strong framework is missing.
    • Funding is very less.
    • Citizens’ participation is very less.
  • Innovative solutions are
    • Technological integration.
    • Incorporating the civil society organizations.
    • Following best practices.
    • Involving college and school students.

Conclusion Tourism is one part, and the other is the preservation of history. You can conclude in any of these areas.

  1. Agriculture needs to pick pace if India has to reach the $5 trillion mark. Elucidate.

Introduction Agriculture in India has been reeling at a very slow pace, but it remains responsible for the livelihood of almost half the nation.


  • Impact of agriculture on the economy is
    • High dependence.
    • Low contribution to GDP.
    • Monsoon dependent economy due to agriculture.
  • Agriculture has been slowly growing due to
    • Small and marginal landholdings.
    • Unscientific farming.
    • The focus of the policies was on farmers, rather than farms.
    • Lack of forwarding and backward linkages.
    • Contract and tenant farming laws are not in the right spirit.
  • This has led to issues like
    • Low output
    • Overemployment.
    • Degradation of soil.
    • Poor quality of produce.
    • Landless farmers.
  • Problems related to agriculture are mainly
    • Economic.
    • Scientific
    • Social
    • Political
    • Legal
  • Solutions for the same are
    • Reforms based on the problems that are mentioned above.

Conclusion Doubling the farmer's income and farm exports are expected to play a key role in the $5 to economies of India.

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