1. Examine the impact of inclusion and exclusion errors in government schemes, and suggest methods to eliminate them.

Introduction Government schemes are often plagued with the inclusion and exclusion errors, which can be used to introduce the answer.


  • What are these errors?
    • Inclusion errors:
      • Selection of the unworthy
    • Exclusion errors:
      • Rejection of the worthy
  • What is the impact of these errors?
    • Benefits do not reach the needy
    • Wastage of public money
    • Lowers the impact of the policy
    • Against the spirit of welfare state.
  • Some reasons for these are:
    • Non serious selection
    • Corruption in preparing the list
    • Low use of technology
    • Lack of coordination among various arms of the government.
  • Solutions envisaged can be:
    • Using aadhaar as a single point for identification of beneficiaries.
    • JAM trinity to reduce the leakages.
    • Using census as a holistic tool to update the data.
    • Involving modern technology for elimination of errors.
    • Integration of AI.
    • Social audit of the beneficiary list.

Conclusion Talk about the need for integration of people’s participation and cutting edge technology like the blockchain, etc for identification and maintenance of the records, and avoiding such errors.

  1. Examine the need for and challenges in unifying defence resources.

Introduction The question wants you to examine the need for creating theater commands and bringing the best resources of all the services together. 


  • Current scenario of interoperability
    • Three services of the military
    • Low cooperation among them.
    • Duplicacy of efforts and resources at times.
    • Complex bureaucratic procedures followed.
  • Role of the theater commands.
    • Integrates the three services.
    • Promotes pooling of resources.
    • Better coherence leading to swift action.
    • Higher probability of successful operations.
  • Challenges with such unification
    • Inter-service competition
    • It may become army dominated.
    • Deployments may be contested.
  • Way forward for the same.
    • Ensuring parity and not competition among the forces.
    • Accompanying coherence with modernisation.

Conclusion Mention the need for bringing theater commands to achieve the said objective.

  1. Critically evaluate the Kisan Credit Card Scheme.

Introduction Kisan Credit cards have been a major factor behind the financial inclusion in the country’s rural landscape.


  • Need for the KCC
    • Institutional credit to farmers.
    • Incentivising those who repay on time.
    • Promotion of investing in agricultural inputs
  • Current scenario
    • Diversion of KCC funds for alternate funds.
    • Exclusion of the landless and tenant farmers.
    • Focus on cropping only
    • Inclusion and exclusion errors.
    • Rising outstandings and the NPAs.
  • Challenges with the scheme
    • Inclusion of all categories of
    • Practically monsoon driven repayments.
    • Limits on these cards keeps increasing irrespective of repayments.
    • High political interference in recollection.
  • Solutions adopted so far
    • Inclusion of allied activities for KCC
    • Interest subvention to improve the usage

Conclusion KCC can be further modified to ensure that the landless and tenant farmers are also included under the ambit of it.

  1. R&D in India suffers from manifold challenges. Do you agree? Suggest a path to improve R&D.

Introduction R&D in India has been abysmal due to a variety of factors. This has had impacts on businesses and innovation in the country.


  • Current research scenario in the country.
    • Only a few institutes in top 200 globally.
    • Only 4.4% of research publications globally are Indian.
    • Ranked 57th on the global innovation index.
  • Issues in the system.
    • Funding
      • Inadequate funding for research
      • Overdependence on the government
    • Systemic issues
      • Education system
      • Outdated curriculum
      • Brain drain
      • University industry linkages are lacking
    • Researchers
      • Poor guidance
      • Low quality journals have infested.
      • Less number of quality guides.
    • Regulatory
      • IPR issues
      • Long time for patent
      • Inadequate number of patent professionals.
  • Solutions are:
    • Provide the solutions pertaining to the each head of the problem. 

Conclusion Discuss the need for industry academia linkages for ensuring a better research ecosystem in the country.

  1. Compare the presidential form of government with parliamentary form of government. Examine if India needs to switch to presidential form.

Introduction While India has chosen to be on the parliamentary form of government, the demand for the Presidential form of the government keeps rising occasionally.


  • What are the features of the parliamentary form,
    • Nominal and real head of the government.
    • Executive is a part of the legislature.
    • Majority party rule
    • Collective responsibility
    • Prime minister as a center of power.
    • Independent civil services
  • Features of the presidential form
    • The president is the real executive.
    • There is no nominal or ceremonial executive.
    • Separation of powers.
    • The tenure of the president is fixed.
  • Benefits of parliamentary form to india
    • Represents diverse groups
    • Better coordination between legislature and executive.
    • Prevents authoritarianism
    • Responsible government.
    • Availability of alternative government.
  • Why should we switch to the presidential form?
    • A stable government is possible.
    • experts are appointed as heads of the departments \
    • There is a continuous and consistent policy.
    • Highly suitable during the period of national crisis.
    • There is no chance for concentration of powers.
  • What are the drawbacks of presidential form in India?
    • The executive is not responsible to the legislature.
    • Possibility of deadlocks between the legislature and the executive.
    • Not a flexible form of government.
    • Conducting foreign policy may be challenging.
  • Way forward. 

Conclusion Presidential form of government may have its own merits, but the parliamentary form suits us better. Take a stand, either in favor of or against, adopting the presidential model to conclude your answer.

You can also download the (Answer Synopsis): Current Affairs Based Mains Drill - by clicking here.