1. Critically examine the feasibility of giving women commanding roles in the armed forces.

Introduction The Supreme court has judged that women be granted permanent commission in the army. Use the news to build a pretext.


  • Mention briefly the debate around giving leading roles to women in the army
  • Arguments for giving the roles.
    • Gender stereotypes must be shunned.
    • Women have given exemplary service.
    • There are technical solutions for physical issues.
  • Arguments against the roles.
    • Men may not heed to women commanders
    • Women may not be available for the entire one month
    • They are to suffer more in case they become PoW.
  • What is a way forward?
    • Giving the commanding roles to women.
    • Taking cases of disobedience seriously.
    • Promoting women in all roles in the army.
    • Increasing gender equality in the forces.

Conclusion Begin the answer by army specific concern and conclude it on a general gender stereotyping note.

  1. What are tribunals? Examine the challenges associated with them.

Introduction Tribunals were formed after the 42nd amendment act under articles 323-A and 323-B. This factual data can be used for the introduction.


  • Need for the tribunals
    • To lower the burden of the regular judiciary.
    • Contest the prevailing pendency in the regular courts.
    • To adjudicate on the specialized matters.
  • Functions of the tribunals
    • Administrative tribunals for the matter of public employment.
    • Other tribunals for various other matters.
      • AFT
      • NGT
      • Appellate tribunals, etc.
    • Quasi-judicial nature.
  • Issues with the tribunals
    • Deviation from the rule of law.
    • Often they have separate procedures, made by themselves.
    • Not really independent like the judiciary.
    • Lack of judicial expertise in members.
    • Often called a parallel judiciary.
  • Solutions suggested
    • Reforming the setup of the tribunals
    • Creating a uniform set of rules and procedures.
    • The regular judiciary should be made free from the ailments and soon eliminate the need for tribunals.
  • Way forward

Conclusion Tribunals are expected to reduce the workload of the regular judiciary, and thus they must work in that fashion.

  1. Examine the challenges of linking aadhaar with PDS and suggest solutions.

Introduction Aadhar seeding with the PDS has been brought to reduce the leakages. Begin with the pretext of the same for the introduction.


  • Why is aadhar seeding required?
    • To prevent leakages.
    • Weed out the ineligible beneficiaries.
    • Eliminate the corruption in distribution.
    • Promote direct benefit transfer.
    • Push for financial inclusion.
  • The challenges associated with it.
    • Internet connectivity is an issue.
    • Lack of expertise among people.
    • Awareness of the operation of the new system is lacking.
    • It doesn't care about people with special needs.
  • Solutions for the same.
    • Maintaining the old methods for the meanwhile along with a push for radar seeding.
    • Reforming the PDS system completely.
    • Adopting better distribution models.
    • Ensuring that the inclusion and exclusion errors are completely eliminated.
  • Way forward.

Conclusion Mention that the radar system has to be reformed so that those with special needs are not excluded.

  1. Mention the challenges facing Indian Agriculture. Suggest methods to improve the prevailing situation.

Introduction Indian agriculture has been under severe stress ever since the origins of British rule. Build background on the same for your answer.


  • Challenges to the agriculture sector in India
    • Low productivity.
    • Small and marginal landholdings.
    • Subsistence farming.
    • Landless farming.
    • High regulations on the land sector.
    • Unscientific farming.
    • Focus on cropping.
    • APMC issues
    • Infrastructure crisis
    • High post-harvest losses
  • Steps were taken so far
    • e-NAM
    • PM-AASHA
    • The model acts to reform agriculture.
    • Food processing reforms.
    • Engaging PPP under SAMPADA.
    • Soil health cards
  • Solutions to be implemented
    • Write solutions related to each of the problems mentioned above.
  • Way forward

Conclusion Agriculture, for growth, needs to look beyond cropping if it has to grow at a fast pace. Conclude with a futuristic outlook in the light of SDG-1, 2, 8, and 10.

  1. The internal security of India has taken a drastic shift since the 1980s. Comment.

Introduction India’s internal security has been drastically reformed after the 1980s. Use either of the issues that rose to introduce your answer.


  • What happened in the 1980s?
    • Operation Bluestar
    • Assassination of the then PM
    • Infiltrations in the state of J&K
    • Growth of communal divide after the Shah Bano case.
  • Challenges to the internal security situation
    • Communal Harmony
    • Terrorism in the country
    • Rise of separatist tendencies.
    • Increase in Naxalism.
  • Steps were taken already
    • Two-pronged approach
      • Police action
      • Reintegration into society.
    • Better financial controlling
    • Integration of technology.
    • Capacity addition of security forces.
  • Way forward for the situation

Conclusion A future strategy to pull down the threats to internal security is required for the conclusion.

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