1. Publishing criminal history is one step towards eliminating criminalization of politics. Comment.

Introduction Recently the court has given a verdict that the politicians need to publish their criminal antecedents. The ECI has welcomed the said verdict.


  • Court has recently mandated the declaration of criminal antecedents.
  • Why is it only one step?
    • Declarations are often published in non-important newspapers.
    • People often do not pay heed to criminal records.
  • What are the issues with criminalization?
    • Lawbreakers as lawmakers.
    • The quality of democracy falls.
    • People’s faith in government is reduced.
    • Law and order become a challenge.
  • What else is needed?
    • Declaration of criminal antecedents of the contestants.
    • Forbidding those with a criminal history from contesting elections.
    • State funding of elections.
    • Right to recall.
    • Fast track courts for concluding the cases against sitting legislators.
    • NOTA to bar the candidates getting lesser votes than NOTA.

Conclusion Mention the need for publishing the criminal history, and then outline the situation by giving a way forward to the introduction of other reforms.

  1. Critically comment on the need and feasibility of removing section 144 of the IPC.

Introduction Section 144 was introduced on many occasions last year, and the Karnataka high court has recently said that it can not be issued at every instance. Introduce the answer with these points.


  • What is section 144?
  • Why is it in the news?
    • Imposed on many occasions
    • Court has not curbed its usage
  • What are the issues that are created by it?
    • Against the freedom of free speech
    • Against liberal values.
    • It creates a police state.
  • Examine the challenges in removing it?
    • Law and order
    • Communal issues are too frequent.
    • Fake news and propaganda often worsen the situation.
    • Review committee takes too long in case of internet shutdowns
  • What is a way forward
    • Time-bound review of every imposition order.
    • Creating standard rules for imposition.
    • Set Up a committee to examine the provisions.
    • Regular review in case of imposition.

Conclusion Examine the impact of 144 on the freedom of speech and conclude the answer by providing a way forward.

  1. Compensatory afforestation has many issues associated with it. Comment.

Introduction India has had a compensatory afforestation law for a very long time. However, there are many issues with the same.


  • What is CAMPA?
  • Mention the lacunae in the act.
    • Fast-growing species are often planted.
    • Nonutilisation of funds under the CAMPA account.
    • No time frame from compensatory afforestation.
    • States with more than 75% of forest cover can plant in other states.
    • Afforestation on paper
  • What are the various steps taken to improve it?
    • Afforestation for creating a carbon sink
    • Better enforcement of CAMPA provisions.
    • NGT and court-monitored the implementation of CAMPA.
  • Examine the solutions to the situation.
    • Local participation and social audit of compensatory afforestation.
    • Not just plantation, but also maintenance of such forests.
    • Promoting civil society participation for audits.
    • Strict penalties in case of non-compliance. 

Conclusion Suggest a way forward to the situation and mention it in the light of sustainable development goals.

  1. Citizenship Amendment Act is an example of a lack of center-state cooperation. Critically comment.

Introduction CAA has shown a reluctance on the part of the states to adopt the law and many have initiated actions against it.


  • Mention the challenges in the Indian model of federalism.
    • The center is all-powerful.
    • Residual powers are with the center.
    • Emergency provisions
    • Center’s power to issue directions.
  • Examine the issues these challenges create.
    • State’s voice gets muffled.
    • The center can strip the state out of power.
    • Decentralization is hampered.
    • Grassroots democracy is negatively impacted. 
    • One size fits all approaches.
  • Why get a better center-state coherence.
    • Cooperative federalism
    • Promotes democratic values.
    • It allows for efficient governance.
    • Solutions as per the regional needs.
  • What are the issues associated with reforms?
    • The large diversity of the country
    • Secessionist tendencies of the government.
    • Greater devolution of powers shall be required. 
  • What is a way forward?

Conclusion Lawmaking is effective when it is inclusive and participatory. Quote some of the commissions like Sarkaria, etc to conclude the answer.

  1. Time is running out to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Introduction Reduced greenhouse emissions are one of the keys to combat global warming. However, the world is not on the right path to meet this target.


  • Mention the problem of climate change.
    • Temperature rise.
    • Ice melting and sea-level rise
    • Land, air, and water degradation.
  • What are the threats associated with it?
    • Hampers human life
    • Degradation of natural resources.
    • Against sustainable development
    • Food insecurity
    • The highest impact on developing and under-developed countries.
  • How are greenhouse gases creating an issue?
    • Major factors behind the heating.
    • Ozone depletion
    • Still being used globally.
  • What are the challenges involved?
    • Developing countries are still dependent on these since they are low-cost technologies.
    • The pre-existing amounts will take some time to settle down.
    • CFCs have been replaced by HFCs.
    • Fossils remain a prominent source of energy in the country.
  • Suggest a way forward to the situation.

Conclusion If we have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, we will need to ensure that all the countries come together. There is a need for a greater contribution by the developed countries since they are the ones majorly responsible.

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