1. Municipal empowerment is necessary for the holistic development of the cities in the country.

Introduction Municipalities in India suffer several lacunae, that have left the cities underdeveloped. Begin your answer by highlighting the prevailing situation.


  • Mention the issues with the municipalities in India.
    • Autonomy
    • Revenue
    • Administration
    • Political interference
    • Lack of awareness
    • Lack of expertise
  • Provide the role of municipalities in the development of cities.
    • Local-level planning
    • People’s participation.
  • Suggest some reforms in the municipalities.
    • Better auditing
    • Governance reforms.
    • Increasing the tax collection.
    • Holistic planning by citizens' participation.
    • Fixing accountability.

Conclusion Municipalities in India must learn from the USA and China for ensuring that Panchayati raj is percolated to the lowest rung, and people’s participation makes cities more liveable.

  1. Lokpal has operational issues that need to be resolved immediately for good governance. Comment.

Introduction Lokpal has been created years back, but it has failed to operationalize yet.


  • What is the institution of Lokpal
  • Need for Lokpal in democracy
    • Corruption free governance.
    • Promotion of ethical governance
    • Better grievance redressal to citizens
    • Increases the faith in government.
    • Better welfare of the people
  • Challenges in the current setup
    • Delay in appointments.
    • Transparency in proceedings
    • Inquiry and prosecution wings are yet to be setup
    • Political influence
  • The solution to improve the prevailing situation
    • Constitutional and independent status to Lokpal
    • Autonomy of function
    • Security of tenure
    • Elimination of outside interference

Conclusion Lokpal is essential for the smooth functioning of democracy in the country, and we must ensure that it is able to act.

  1. Mention the challenges that wind power generation faces in India. Suggest solutions for the same.

Introduction Capacity addition of wind power has been very low in the last few years. Begin your answer with that note.


  • What are the challenges wind power faces?
    • Share in energy is declining.
    • Extremely concentrated to 7 states
    • Low rate of capacity addition
  • Why is the situation so?
    • High installation costs.
    • Maintenance is difficult.
    • Environmental concerns
    • Lower auction prices of power tariffs.
  • Suggest some solutions
    • Viability gap funding for the installation projects.
    • Bringing the power tariffs to a rational level.
    • According to the ‘Must run’ status to the sector.
    • Putting realistic, rather than ambiguous targets.
  • Provide a way forward

Conclusion Although solar energy is more promising and has fewer issues associated, increasing the wind power generation capacity is necessary if we are to strive for limiting climate change.

  1. On one hand, the medical sector is highly regulated, and on the other, it lacks basic infrastructure. Suggest reforms to rejuvenate the medical sector in India.

Introduction The medical sector is one of the highly monitored ones, but at the same time, it is disabled by infrastructure constraints.


  • Mention current state of regulations.
    • Highly regulated.
    • Challenges related to setting up new facilities.
    • Restrictions for everything related to the sector
  • Highlight the lack of infrastructure.
    • Poor quality of education in medical colleges.
    • Lack of infrastructure in rural areas.
    • Lack of doctors and health workers.
    • Lack of basic facilities at the hospitals
  • Suggest some solutions.
    • Creation of rural infrastructure
    • Better remuneration for doctors and healthcare workers.
    • Telemedicine and e-medicine
    • Better diagnostics facilities at rural centers.
  • Mention some steps taken already
    • Creation of National Medical Council.
    • Provisions for the allied workforce in the sector.
    • PPP model for the creation of hospitals and medical colleges.
    • VGF to medical projects.
    • Protection of hospitals and doctors against vandalism and assault.
  • Provide a way forward.

Conclusion Mention how important it is to have a healthy India in the wake of the demographic dividend in the country and pulling more people out of poverty.

  1. India’s social fabric needs overhauling for the elimination of caste-based atrocities. Comment.

Introduction India has been independent for more than 70 years now, and the caste discrimination still prevails. Begin your answer with a quote or some data for the same.


  • Examine the current state of atrocities and discrimination in the country.
    • Caste discrimination
    • Social ostracization
    • Honor killings
    • Exploitation
      • Rapes
      • Bonded labor
      • Inhumane treatment
    • Atrocities
  • Provide for the recent ruling of the courts
    • On atrocities act
    • On a reservation in promotions
  • Mention the need for elimination of atrocities
    • Social equality
    • Economic development
    • Best productivity out of all the people
    • Social coherence
  • How to achieve it
    • Educational opportunities
    • Economic upliftment
    • Zero discrimination.
    • Elimination of manual scavenging, bonded labor, etc.
  • Conclude with the way forward

Conclusion Conclude your answer with a quote from Gandhi or Ambedkar. This will give a better conclusion to the points that you have already presented.

You can also download the (Answer Synopsis): Current Affairs Based Mains Drill - by clicking here.