1. Judicial restraint is the key to the separation of powers. Comment.

Introduction Mention the recent rise of the PIL system and judicial activism in the country.


  • What is judicial restraint?
  • What is judicial activism?
  • What are the issues with judicial activism?
    • Against the principle of separation of powers.
    • Sees the letter of the law and politics as separate issues
    • It does not apply prevailing law and depends on the wisdom of the judge.
    • Often influenced by personal affairs
    • Appointed judges overturn the elected representatives’ mandate.
  • Mention solutions and highlight the role of judicial restraint.
    • Judges need to follow the law of the land.
    • Restraint must be exercised wherever possible.
    • Separation of powers must be prevalent.
    • Interference only as a last resort.

Conclusion Provide for the role of judicial restraint in ensuring the separation of powers.

  1. Critically comment on the need for review power in the judiciary?

Introduction The Indian judiciary has not only reviewed but overturned significant legislation. Begin the answer with this idea.


  • Mention the concept of judicial review.
  • Examine the importance of judicial review.
    • Protects constitutional values.
    • A system of checks and balances to the other government branches.
    • Prevents majoritarian excesses.
    • Puts trust in the judiciary.
  • Highlight various provisions.
    • Article 13
    • Article 32
  • Mention important cases.
    • Shankari Prasad vs Union of India
    • R Coelho vs State of Tamil Nadu
    • Mitthu vs the State of Punjab
    • PUCL vs Union of India
  • Mention the issues with it.
    • Can convert to judicial activism and overreach.
    • Against separation of powers.
    • Arbitrary judgments might come.
  • Provide solutions.
    • Judicial restraint.
    • Fixing the judicial review’s scope.
    • Judicial consultation prior to lawmaking.

Conclusion Conclude the answer by demonstrating the need for the review power to protect the basic structure of the constitution.

  1. Draft policy on rare diseases has few hits and many misses. Comment.

Introduction Recently the government has moved the policy on rare diseases. It has been a widely criticized policy, and thus you must try to base your answers on the same.


  • What are rare diseases?
  • What is the current status?
    • No policy existed for a long time.
    • Lack of research in the area
    • Lack of incentive for the private sector to invest.
    • Lack of awareness.
  • What are the provisions of the new policy?
    • Affordable health care to patients of rare diseases
    • Prevention of rare diseases as a priority
    • Documentation of most of the rare diseases.
    • One time ₹15 lakh compensation for Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi.
  • What should be a way forward?
    • Better investment in research.
    • Regular rather than one-time assistance.
    • Promotion of social care for rare disease victims.

Conclusion Rare diseases are also known as orphan diseases since the patients are virtually left without a choice. Our policy must be designed in a way that these patients no longer remain orphans.

  1. What are the reasons for human trafficking? How can this social evil be stopped in India?

Introduction Human trafficking has been one of the major issues that the country faces. You should begin your answer by briefly introducing social concern.


  • Mention the current prevalence of human trafficking in the country.
  • What are the reasons behind human trafficking?
    • Begging
    • Prostitution
    • Forced labor
    • Organ harvesting
  • What are the challenges in controlling it?
    • Lack of coordination among agencies.
    • Lack of coordination among countries.
    • Transboundary movement is difficult to track.
    • Occasionally it is traditionally rooted.
  • What is a way forward?
    • Creation of a global network for curbing it.
    • Active synergy among all agencies.
    • Awareness among the most vulnerable.
    • Protection via surveillance of regular routes.

Conclusion Conclude the answer by mentioning the need for holistic participation of various stakeholders to eliminate the menace of human trafficking in the country.

  1. Air pollution is a challenge that threatens more than just human life. Comment.

Introduction Air pollution is one of the issues that has thrilled the national capital for the last few years. Begin your answer by mentioning the spread of pollution.


  • Why is air pollution rising?
    • Crackers.
    • Vehicles.
    • Traffic congestion.
    • Deforestation.
    • Industrialization.
    • Stubble burning.
    • Increased use of electricity, and
    • Products containing HFCs
  • What are the issues with air pollution?
    • Health burden
    • Reduced liveability
    • Impact on biodiversity.
    • Corrosion of infrastructure and heritage due to acid rain.
    • Smog and related transport issues.
    • Extreme weather events.
  • How can air pollution be curbed?
    • Recycle, Reduce, and Reuse principle.
    • Afforestation.
    • Creation of a larger carbon sink.
    • Push for public transport.
    • Elimination of stubble burning.
  • Conclude the answer with a way forward.

Conclusion You can conclude the answer in light of SDG-3, 11, 12, 13, and 15 for a better impact.

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