1. What is genome mapping? Why is it required in Indian context?

Introduction Mention the definition of genome mapping.


  • Mention what is genome mapping.
  • What are the benefits
    • Identify risk factors and health hazards
    • Evolving new medicines
    • Identify disease fingerprints
    • Developing treatments
  • Why is it required in India?
    • Identify common genetic disorders.
    • Creation of national directory of diseases.
    • Help in better medical research.
    • Reducing the disease burden
    • Improve the health of the demography.
  • What are the challenges?
    • Collection of data.
    • Protection of data.
    • Lack of infrastructure.
  • Suggest some solutions.

Conclusion India has a wide population which makes learning the genome important. Conclude it in the light of the demographic dividend of the country.


  1. Examine the various writs available in India against violation of fundamental rights.

Introduction Fundamental rights themselves have the writs as legal remedy for their violation under article 32. Begin in the pretext of this line.


  • Mention the writ jurisdiction of courts.
    • Article 32
    • Article 226
  • Talk about various writs.
    • Habeas Corpus
    • Mandamus
    • Prohibition
    • Certiorari
    • Quo warranto
  • Provide exceptions and exemptions.
    • Governor and president, etc.

Conclusion Various writs under the Indian constitution have been holding the basic structure of the constitution. Comment using this idea to conclude the answer.


  1. Municipal reforms are required for complete elimination of manual scavenging. Comment.

Introduction Manual scavenging has been prevalent and been causing many deaths. Introduce the answer with the said data.


  • Why manual scavenging prevails.
    • Caste issues.
    • Lack of infrastructure for alternate cleaning.
    • Lack of funding.
  • How is the municipal system responsible?
    • Manual scavenging as a quick solution.
    • Lack of innovation.
    • Lack of funding.
    • Lack of autonomy.
    • People’s partnership lacks.
  • What are the reforms suggested?
    • Awareness for promoting the people’s participation.
    • Complete ban on manual scavenging.
    • Devolution of powers.
    • Better financial management and funding.
    • Increasing autonomy and fixing responsibility.

Conclusion Municipal reform will allow for people’s participation, and will go for elimination of manual scavenging. Conclude with information on this.


  1. What is bio-fortification? How is it necessary in the light of SDG-2, and SDG-3?

Introduction Give a definition of the bio-fortification of food.


  • Role of bio-fortification
  • How can it play a role in SGD-2?
    • Through ICDS
    • Mid-day meal
    • Antyodaya
  • How can it play a role in SGD-3?
    • Higher nutrition level.
    • Tackle undernutrition.
    • Healthy population.
    • Reducing the disease burden.
  • What are the challenges that prevail?
    • Lack of technology.
    • Focus has been on hunger.
    • Lack of awareness.
    • Myths regarding fortified and GM food.
  • What are some solutions?
    • Allow for GM crops.
    • Promote bio-fortification.
    • Invest more in research and infrastructure.
    • Develop a strong distribution network.
    • Filtering the inclusion and exclusion errors.

Conclusion Connect it with ICDS or Janani suraksha yojana to conclude the answer. You can also relate to the SDG-1, 2, 3, and 5.


  1. What are some issues with elections in India? How can they be resolved?

Introduction Recent elections again saw the rise of certain electoral issues. Use those to begin your answer.


  • What are some electoral issues?
    • Uneducated politicians.
    • Criminalisation of politics.
    • Money and muscle politics.
    • Identity politics.
  • Why do these issues remain?
    • Caste remains a key factor.
    • Second major issue is religion in politics.
    • Communalisation and intolerance are on rise.
    • Black money excessively used.
    • ECI has shown incompetence in using powers.
  • What are the challenges in removing them?
    • Literacy as a qualification is highly debated.
    • Fake cases against law makers.
    • Slow criminal justice system.
    • ECI’s powers are unclear.
  • Suggest some solutions.
    • State funding of elections.
    • Prohibition of convicted felons from contesting elections.
    • Similar prohibition in case of those who have a charge sheet filed against them in heinous crimes.
    • ECI to exercise the powers under article 324 as directed by the Madras High court.

Conclusion For concluding the answer, you can mention the Indrajit gupta committee or any other.

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