Indian Space Program

  • Dr Vikram Sarabhai is the father of the Indian space program.
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the nodal agency under the independent Department of Space.
  • 1969 – Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) under Department of Atomic Energy.
  • 1975 – ISRO’s first Indian Satellite, Aryabhata, launched.
  • 1982 – INSAT-IA, India’s first geo-stationary satellite. India’s first into the interplanetary space.

MOM: Mars Orbiter Mission/ Mangalyaan

  • Probe of Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and the Martian atmosphere.
  • A specific search for methane in the Martian atmosphere.
  • Launched aboard PSLV C-25.
  • MOM launched in three phases: Geo Centric Phase, Helio Centric Phase, Martian Phase.
Read More:- PM live addressed the nation on Successful Execution of Mission Shakti Read Also:- Do Mission Shakti Violates International Space Laws & Treaties


  • The first experimental suborbital flight of India’s latest generation Launch Vehicle-LVM3.
  • Has a passive cryogenic stage.
  • Sub-orbital spaceflight is when a spacecraft goes into space but does not reach the altitude where it can orbit Earth.
  • It goes to the end of the atmosphere, or specifically, 100km (62 miles). It is called the Karman line, 100km is approximately where the thermosphere starts and is considered the “edge of space.”
  • It’s in this part of the Earth’s atmosphere where solar radiation gets absorbed and can reach temperatures 360 degrees Fahrenheit on regular days, but can go as high as 900 degrees when there’s a lot of solar activity.


The scientific objectives of AstroSat mission are:
  • To understand high energy processes in binary star systems containing neutron stars and black holes;
  • Estimate magnetic fields of neutron stars
  • Study star birth regions and high energy processes in star systems lying beyond our galaxy;
  • Detect new briefly bright X-ray sources in the sky;
  • Perform a limited deep field survey of the Universe in the Ultraviolet region.


  • Augments the Ku-band transponder capacity in Geostationary Orbit.
  • India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C44) successfully injected Microsat-R and Kalamsat-V2 satellites into their designated orbits.
  • Microsat-R, an imaging satellite
  • Kalamsat-V2, a student payload, first to use PS4 as an orbital platform.
  • The Kalamsat-V2 is the lightest satellite in the world.
  • The satellite designed and built by students who work with a private organisation called “Space Kidz India” in Chennai weighs 1.26 kg only.
  • Kalamsat nicknamed “gulab jamun” because of its puny size.

GSLV – F11

  • ISRO’s fourth generation launch vehicle with three stages.
  • The four liquid strap-ons and a solid rocket motor at the core form the first stage.
  • The second stage of the vehicle is equipped with high thrust engine using liquid fuel.
  • The Cryogenic Upper Stage forms the third and final stage of the vehicle.
  • Geostationary satellite carrying communication transponders in Ku-band.
  • The Satellite is built to provide communication capability to the users over the Indian region
  • GSAT-11 is the heaviest satellite built by ISRO.

Future Mission: GSLV-F10/Chandrayaan-2 Mission

  • India’s second mission to the Moon is a totally indigenous mission comprising of an Orbiter, Lander and Rover.
  • It includes a six-wheeled Rover.
  • The instruments on the rover will observe the lunar surface and send back data,which will be useful for analysis of the lunar soil.
  • To perform the objectives of remote sensing the moon.
  • The payloads will collect scientific information on lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, lunar exosphere and signatures of hydroxyl and water-ice.
  • Chandrayaan 2 and Israeli lander Beresheet, due to touch down April 11, will each carry NASA-owned laser retroreflector arrays.
  • It allows scientists to make precise measurements of the distance to the Moon.
  • Retroreflectors are sophisticated mirrors that reflect laser light signals sent from the Earth.
  • The signals can help pinpoint precisely where the lander is, which scientists can use to precisely calculate the Moon’s distance from Earth.
Read More:- IRNSS system / NavIC Read Also:-Some Important Terminologies Related to Budget you should know