all-about-nobel-peace-prize-th

Context: A Norwegian lawmaker has nominated Donald Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize for 2021 for helping broker a deal between Israel and the United Arab Emirates.

Analysis

Process of nomination and selection

  • The Norwegian Nobel Committee is responsible for selecting the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates. 
  • A nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize may be submitted by any persons who are qualified to nominate.
  • According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, a nomination is considered valid if it is submitted by a person who falls within one of the following categories:
  • Members of national assemblies and national governments (cabinet members/ministers) of sovereign states as well as current heads of states
  • Members of The International Court of Justice in The Hague and The Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague
  • Members of l’Institut de Droit International
  • Members of the international board of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
  • University professors, professors emeriti and associate professors of history, social sciences, law, philosophy, theology, and religion; university rectors and university directors (or their equivalents); directors of peace research institutes and foreign policy institutes
  • Persons who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Members of the main board of directors or its equivalent of organizations that have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Current and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee 
  • Former advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Committee

Candidacy criteria

  • The candidates eligible for the Nobel Peace Prize are those persons or organizations nominated by qualified individuals, see above. 
  • A nomination for yourself will not be taken into consideration.

Selection of Nobel Laureates

  • The Norwegian Nobel Committee is responsible for the selection of eligible candidates and the choice of the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates. 
  • The Committee is composed of five members appointed by the Storting (Norwegian parliament)
  • The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, not in Stockholm, Sweden, where the Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and the Economics Prize are awarded.

50 year secrecy rule

  • The Committee does not itself announce the names of nominees, neither to the media nor to the candidates themselves. 
  • In so far as certain names crop up in the advance speculations as to who will be awarded any given year’s Prize, this is either sheer guesswork or information put out by the person or persons behind the nomination. 
  • Information in the Nobel Committee’s nomination database is not made public until after fifty years.

Past winners (Relevance to Civil Services Exam)

  • International Committee of the Red Cross has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize three times (in 1917, 1944 and 1963), and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize two times (in 1954 and 1981), there are 24 individual organizations which have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

The Nobel Peace Prize 2019

  • Abiy Ahmed Ali “for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”
  • Some Important orgnisations which won Nobel Prize are as under 
  • Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), 
  • European Union (EU), 
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United Nations (U.N.), 
  • Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders)

Nobel Laureates from India

  • Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee: He won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2019 for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.
  • Kailash Satyarthi: The Nobel Peace Prize of 2014 was awarded for struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. 
  • He also heads the Global March Against Child Labour, a movement to mobilise worldwide efforts to protect and promote the rights of all children.
  • Venkatraman Ramakrishnan: He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2009 for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome, molecular machine that makes protein. 
  • Amartya Sen: He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Economics for the year 1998, becoming the first Asian to have been honoured with the award. 
  • Subramanian Chandrashekhar: He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. 
  • He developed a theory on white dwarf stars which posts a limit of mass of dwarf stars known also as Chandrashekhar Limit. 
  • His theory explains the final stages of stellar evolution.
  • Mother Teresa: The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Mother Teresa in 1979. 
  • Concern for the poor and the sick prompted her to found a new congregation, Missionaries of Charity. 
  • Having become an Indian citizen, Mother Teresa served the cause of dying destitutes, lepers and drug addicts, through Nirmal Hriday (meaning Pure Heart), the main centre of her activity. 
  • Her selfless service and unique devotion, not only to helpless fellow-Indians but also to the cause of world peace, earned her and India the first Nobel Peace Prize.
  • Hargobind Khorana: Hargobind Khorana was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968. 
  • His major breakthrough in the field of Medicine —interpreting the genetic code and analysing its function in protein synthesis — fetched him the Nobel Prize.
  • Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman: India’s first Nobel Prize for Physics was claimed in 1930 by the renowned physicist Sir C.V. Raman, received the Nobel Prize for an important optics research, in which he discovered that diffused light contained rays of other wavelengths—what is now popularly known as Raman Effect. 
  • His theory discovered in 1928 explains the change in the frequency of light passing through a transparent medium.
  • Rabindranath Tagore: Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian ever to receive a Nobel Prize. 
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in recognition of his work Geetanjali, a collection
    of poems, in 1913. 
  • Tagore wrote many love lyrics. Geetanjali and Sadhana are among his important works.  
  • He is also the author of India’s National Anthem. 
  • In 1901, he founded the famous Santiniketan which later came to be known as Vishwa Bharati University.