Context: Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban has achieved 99% its target of creating Urban India Open Defecation Free. 

More about news:

  • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs(MoHUA), Government of India takes up the Swachh Survekshan in urban areas and the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation in rural areas. 
  • Quality Council of India is visiting Urban Legislative Bodies (ULBs) as a third party for ODF inspection.
  • However, the survey of the urban bodies could not be done in time in West Bengal due to the pandemic.

Performance of Swachh Bharat Mission

  • From a position of zero ODF states and cities in 2014, 99 per cent of India’s cities have today become ODF. 
  • Out of the 4,372 cities in India to be made ODF, 4,323 stand declared as ODF, which is 99 per cent. 
  • Of them 4,204 (about 96 per cent) stand as ODF verified cities.
  • 4,167 cities have been certified through third-party verification.
  • This has been achieved by the construction of nearly 65.81 lakh individual household toilets against Mission target of 59 lakhs and 5.89 lakh seats of public toilets against Mission target of 5.08 lakh seats. 
  • Till date, 819 cities have been certified ODF plus, and 312 cities have been certified ODF plus plus.   
  • Over 2,300 cities have uploaded more than 57 thousand public toilets mapped on Google maps, covering more than 50 per cent of India’s urban population.
  • Government has launched a star rating protocol for Garbage free cities. Indore, Ambikapur, Navi Mumbai and Mysuru have been certified as 5-star cities.
  • Solid waste management processing has gone up to 67 per cent from 18 per cent in 2014. 
    • The target is to reach 100 per cent by the time India celebrates 75 years of Independence in 2022 in the 500 Indian cities under the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) scheme.


  • Open defecation in rural areas: It has been a problem mainly in rural areas. The govt. has claimed that all 5,99,963 villages of the country have attained ODF status by construction of the required toilets under Swachh Bharat Mission-Rural scheme. 

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)

  • To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation, the Swachh Bharat Mission was launched on 2nd October, 2014.
  • The Mission Coordinator for SBM: Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS) with two Sub-Missions - 
    • The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin): Nodal Ministry: MDWS 
    • The Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban): Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • Together, they aim to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th Birth Anniversary.
  • The aim of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is to achieve a clean and Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2nd October, 2019.
  • Phase II of SBM(G): The Mission is moving towards the next Phase II of SBMG i.e ODF-Plus, launched in 2020 to ensure that the open defecation free behaviours are sustained, no one is left behind, and that solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) facilities are accessible. 

The criterion for declaring a state as ODF(Open Defecation Free) Status:

  • No visible feces found in the environment
  • Every household as well as public/community institutions using a safe technology option for disposal of faeces.

The criterion for declaring a state as ODF+(Open Defecation Free +) Status:

  • The ODF+ protocol focuses on sustaining community/ public toilet usage by ensuring their functionality, cleanliness, and maintenance
  • ODF+ status will be given to the state, if, at any point in a day, not a single person should be defecating and/or urinating in the open.

The criterion for declaring a state as ODF++(Open Defecation Free ++) Status:

  • The ODF++ protocol focuses on achieving sanitation sustainability by addressing a complete sanitation value chain, including safe containment, processing, and disposal of fecal sludge and septage.

Image Source: NDTV